On 25 January 2019, the UN Security Council held an open debate to discuss the security implications of climate-related disaster events. The meeting, initiated by the Dominican Republic, underscored the global nature of climate-related disasters. Most speakers highlighted the need for better climate risk management as an important contribution to safeguarding international peace and security. The debate marks the beginning of a year in which climate security ranks high on the UN’s agenda.
The Dominican Republic, ranking 10th among the countries most affected by extreme weather-related disasters, joined the UN Security Council (UNSC) on 1 January 2019 as a non-permanent member and immediately assumed its month-long presidency. The island nation, initiated an open debate “Addressing the impacts of climate-related disasters on international peace and security”. The corresponding concept note it circulated drew attention to how climate change not only undermines human security, but can also exacerbate, prolong or spark conflict. It went on to argue the UNSC’s primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, implies an obligation to integrate climate-related risks into its discussions and operations around international security.
As the debate showed, the adverse impacts of climate disasters on peace are a global issue, affecting all countries. Caribbean low-lying island states are particularly vulnerable to climate-related disasters and associated security risks. Hurricanes, storms, sea level rise and floods take a heavy toll on people’s livelihoods. Meanwhile, Central America, the Middle East, the Sahel and the Horn of Africa all recently experienced protracted displacement and food insecurity as severe droughts reduced crop yields and water supplies. 2018 also saw severe disasters relating to extreme weather in the US, Europe and Asia.
The number of delegations and high-level political leaders participating in the debate reflect great interest in the topic: More than 80 took the floor, 15 of which were headed by ministers.
8 hours of debate yielded a number of takeaway messages, agreed upon by most countries who took the floor:
Most countries welcomed the debate, agreed that climate change poses serious threats and called for the Security Council to engage more systematically on this issue. However, some delegations questioned whether engagement was appropriate, citing knowledge gaps and doubts concerning the link between climate change and security. Some argued the UNSC should focus more on political issues directly relevant conflicts, given its specific mandate as opposed to that of the General Assembly and the UNFCCC. This would help it refrain from encroaching on the tasks of other UN institutions.
As the resolutions referencing climate change show, climate security has become more prominent on the UNSC agenda over the past two years, not least due to the efforts of Sweden and the Netherlands in pushing for appropriate climate risk management. With Germany now a non-permanent member of the Security Council and its commitment to prioritize climate security during its term, 2019 and 2020 will see further engagement of the Security Council on climate security. In 2018, Foreign Minister Heiko Maas together with Nauru co-initiated a Group of Friends on Climate and Security, which recently grew to more than 40 member states from all of the UN’s five regional groups. Building on advances made by Sweden, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, the UK, Ukraine, and now the Dominican Republic, Germany seeks to help enable the UN system to better respond to the interlinkages between climate change and peacebuilding, and to develop greater understanding and capacity to address climate-fragility risks on the ground.
The Dominican Republic is expected to publish a Chair’s Summary during the coming weeks.
One of the world’s lowest-lying countries invited international experts to discuss the security challenges related to climate change.
Nepal and Afghanistan face a number of serious climate-fragility risks, so adelphi brought together regional government officials and NGO experts for a training in Kathmandu on 9 November 2019.
At a briefing ahead of the COP25, foreign minister Heiko Maas called for higher ambition for the European Union, which should act as a role-model to incentivate other states to boost their commitments to climate action. He further reiterated the importance of supporting multilateralism and an international climate regime that is able to withstand setbacks, such as the US withdrawal of the Paris Agreement.
Climate change is increasingly challenging global security and undermining peacebuilding efforts. UN Environment and the European Union have joined forces to address these challenges. With the support of adelphi, they have developed a toolkit on ‘Addressing climate-fragility risks’. This toolkit facilitates the development and implementation of strategies, policies, and projects that seek to build resilience by linking climate change adaptation, peacebuilding, and sustainable livelihoods, focusing on the pilot countries Sudan and Nepal.