Adaptation & Resilience
Climate Change
Conflict Transformation
Global Issues
Johannes Ackva and Benjamin Pohl

In his speech on climate change and national security on November 10, Secretary of State John Kerry said climate change is already a “threat multiplier,” and that worse is to be expected if climate change continues unchecked. But the relationship between the environment and violent conflict is complex and often indirect.

Adaptation & Resilience
Biodiversity & Livelihoods
Early Warning & Risk Analysis
Land & Food
Global Issues
Francis Ghesquiere, Nicholas Jones

Named by Peruvian fishermen because of its tendency to appear around Christmastime, El Niño is the planet’s most large-scale and recurring mode of climate variability. Every 2-7 years, a slackening of trade winds that push sun-warmed water across the Pacific contributes to a rise in water temperature across large parts of the ocean.